Bhutan (Bhhu Uttan- meaning high land in Sanskrit) is also known as DrukYul, The Land of the Thunder Dragon. Bhutan is an ancient Himalayan Kingdom with India to the south and China to its north. Little has been known about Bhutan, mainly due to its rugged terrains and thick forest cover. With the difficulties of nature overcome, Bhutan is yet to be discovered!
With a size of 46,500 sq km and a population of roughly 600,000, it has left most of Bhutan’s nature unscathed by humans. It was befittingly declared as one of the ten global hotspots for environmental conservation.
The National flag is rectangular and divided diagonally into two parts with a white dragon across the middle. The upper yellow half signifies the country’s secular authority of the King in fruitful action in the affairs of religion and state. The lower saffron-orange signifies the religious practice and spiritual power of Buddhism manifested in the Drukpa Kagyud and Nyingma traditions. The dragon symbolises the name of the country, Druk Yul and its white colour signifies purity and loyalty of the Bhutanese people. The snarling mouth of the dragon expresses the strength of the male and female deities protecting Bhutan while the jewels in its claws represent the wealth, prosperity and perfection of the country and the people.
Mountainous Bhutan, half the size of Indiana, is situated on the southeast slope of the Himalayas, bordered on the north and east by Tibet and on the south and west and east by India. The landscape consists of a succession of lofty and rugged mountains and deep valleys. In the north, towering peaks reach a height of 24,000 ft (7,315 m).
Although archeological exploration of Bhutan has been limited, evidence of civilization in the region dates back to at least 2000 B.C. Aboriginal Bhutanese, known as Monpa, are believed to have migrated from Tibet. The traditional name of the country since the 17th century has been Drukyul, Land of the Drokpa (Dragon People), a reference to the dominant branch of Tibetan Buddhism that is still practiced in the Himalayan kingdom.
British troops invaded the region in 1865 and negotiated an agreement under which Britain agreed to pay an annual allowance to the Bhutanese monarchy on condition of good behavior. A treaty between India and the seat of government, Thimphu, in 1949 increased this subsidy and placed Bhutan’s foreign affairs under Indian control. Until the 1960s Bhutan was largely isolated from the rest of the world, and its people carried on a tranquil, traditional way of life, farming and trading, which had remained intact for centuries. After China invaded Tibet, however, Bhutan strengthened its ties and contact with India in an effort to avoid Tibet’s fate. New roads and other connections to India began to end its isolation. In the 1960s Bhutan also undertook social modernization, abolishing slavery and the caste system, emancipating women, and enacting land reform. In 1985, Bhutan made its first diplomatic links with non-Asian countries.
A pro-democracy campaign emerged in 1991, which the government claimed was composed largely of Nepali immigrants. As a result, some 100,000 Nepali civil servants were either evicted or encouraged to emigrate. Most of them crossed the border back into Nepal, where they were housed in UN-administered refugee camps. Several rounds of talks aimed at deciding which country should claim the refugees have yielded few results, and the refugees have continued to languish in the camps for more than a decade.
In 1998, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck voluntarily curtailed his powerful monarchy by yielding to the formerly rubber-stamp legislature, giving it the right to remove him from leadership and appoint his cabinet. King Wangchuck moved closer to diluting the absolute monarchy in March 2005, with the release of a draft constitution, which outlined plans for the country to shift to a two-party democracy. The proposed constitution will be put to a referendum before it is adopted.
In Dec. 2004, Bhutan became the first nation in the world to ban the sale of tobacco and smoking in public.
- 3) Population of persons with disabilities:
- 4) Definition of disability.
- 5) So far the government has not regularize the laws and regulation
- 1) Khaling Blind School, that is finance by Royal Government,
- 2) Draktsho Vocational Center, finance by half government and donor agency
- Outline of my Organization:
- Policy Objective 1: Improve the quality of vocational education
- Policy Objective 2: Increase access to vocational education and training.
- Policy Objective 3: Improve and expand training in zorig chusum
- Policy Objective 4: Maximize use of public expenditure.
- Policy and Planning Programme
- Industrial Liaison and Advocacy Programme
- Project Implementation
- Village Skills Development Programme
- Special Skills Development Programme
- Apprenticeship Training Programme
- Monitoring, Evaluation and Support Programme
- Brief on Vocational rehabilitation in Bhutan:
- 2) Expected outcome:
Ruler: King Jigme Singye Wangchuck (1972)
Prime Minister: Lyonpo Sangay Nidup (2005)
Total and land area: 18,147 sq mi (47,001 sq km)
Population (2006 est.): 2,279,723 (growth rate: 2.1%); birth rate: 33.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 98.4/1000; life expectancy: 54.8; density per sq mi: 126
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Thimphu (official), 60,200
Monetary unit: Ngultrum
Languages: Dzongkha (official), Tibetan dialects (among Bhotes), Nepalese dialects (among Nepalese)
Ethnicity/race: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Literacy rate: 42% (1995 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2003 est.): $2.9 billion; per capita $1,400. Real growth rate: 5.3%. Inflation: 3% (2002 est.). Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 3%. Agriculture: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, grains; dairy products, eggs. Labor force: n.a.; note: massive lack of skilled labor (1997 est.); agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%. Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide. Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide. Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.): electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices. Imports: $196 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.): fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice. Major trading partners: India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Japan, Austria (2003).
Internet hosts: 985 (2003). Internet users: 15,000 (2003).
Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 4,007 km; paved: 24 km; unpaved: 3,983 km (2002). Ports and harbors: none. Airports: 2 (2004 est.)
3) Population of persons with disabilities:
a) Total numbers of disabilities: 90 Age ranges from b) Physical disabilities: 20 3 to 20 years c) Visual impairments: 60 6 to 24 years d) Speech or language impairments: 10 10 to 26 years Total 90 e) Total Female disabilities: 22 Male disabilities: 68
4) Definition of disability.
The term “child with a disability” means a child: with mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
5) So far the government has not regularize the laws and regulation
We two school in the county where the children are sent to learn literature skill and the Vocational skill
1) Khaling Blind School, that is finance by Royal Government,
2) Draktsho Vocational Center, finance by half government and donor agency
In this two school they learn how to read and some vocational skill like Traditional Arts & Painting, Tailoring, Basket weaving, Weaving, Carpentry, knitting and some attending the telecommunication.
Outline of my Organization:
The Department of Human Resources (DHR) was an autonomous agency of the Royal Government of Bhutan that was responsible for overseeing all aspects of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in the country. It was established in May 1999 with the mandate to develop and implement a national TVET system that matches the supply and demand of skilled workers in numbers, quality and expectations.
The DHR board, with members from major stake holders, was the executive body of the authority while the DHR secretariat was the implementing agency. The secretariat was responsible for implementing the directives of the authority, and for coordinating the development and implementation of a national TVET system. All staff of the secretariat, including the head of the secretariat, is appointed by the Royal Civil Service Commission (RCSC). The DHR has also formed numerous committees drawing in members from relevant organizations, both government and private, that facilitate the DHR in performing its functions.
Since the development and implementation of a national TVET system, to produce a skilled, productive and professional workforce in the country, lie at the heart of the DHR, all our activities are centered around the broad objective. Specifically, we are involved in the following:
- Planning, developing and coordinating the implementation of a national system for TVET;
- Formulating policy, planning, coordinating and enabling TVET at all levels;
- Registering, authorizing and coordinating all TVET programmes of institutes, agencies and all other training providers;
- Setting and ensuring minimum academic and training standards in institutes, agencies and all other training providers;
- Promoting and supporting TVET programmes in the general education system;
- Developing a national system for skills standards, testing and certification of skilled workers; and
- Developing partnerships between and among industry and TVET providers
The DHR is a young organization. Its institutional capacity must be strengthened in order to manage an effective national vocational education and training system.
The number of school-leavers is increasing significantly every year. During the Ninth Five Year Plan, approximately 28,000 students will enter the workforce. They will need access to appropriate training programmes to enable them to lead meaningful and productive working lives. But, on the other hand, the training capacity is extremely limited, and the training system inefficient.
The kingdom continues to face an acute shortage of all types and levels of skilled workers. This shortage is particularly severe in the private sector.
To address these issues, the DHR’s overall policy objectives for the Ninth Five Year Plan will focus on two key issues: improving quality, and increasing access to vocational education and training. This will increase the relevance and access to training for our youth, and create a skilled and productive workforce to ensure equitable and sustainable growth and to improve quality of life.
Policy Objective 1: Improve the quality of vocational education
The quality of vocational education and training will be improved in order to produce skilled workers who can contribute productively towards the development of the economy in general and the private sector in particular. This objective will be achieved through the following strategies:
- Strengthening the DHR’s institutional capacity to enable it to plan and regulate VET efficiently and effectively.
- Developing a national VET system with long-term training policies, strategic planning processes, and systems to register training institutes, accredit training courses, test and certify skills of workers, and provide support to training institutes.
- Standardizing and accrediting all training courses, formal and non-formal.
- Improving partnerships with stakeholders, especially those in the private sector, to reduce the mismatch of skills by engaging them in planning, designing, delivering and regulating VET.
Promoting dignity of labor, work values and professionalism to generate greater awareness, interest and acceptance of blue-collared work.
Policy Objective 2: Increase access to vocational education and training.
The capacity of the VET system will be expanded to cater to the increasing demands for training by school-leavers and for skilled workers by industry. Training capacity will be increased through the following strategies:
- Increasing the annual intake capacity of the DHR’s five existing training institutes from 320 to 800 students by restructuring their training programmes to offer short, modular, flexible courses, and by expanding their existing training facilities.
- Building eight new training institutes with a combined annual intake capacity of 815 students.
- Restructuring the non-formal training modes including the Apprenticeship Training Programme, the Special Skills Development Programme and the Village Skills Development Programme, and expanding their capacity to train 1500 workers annually.
- Supporting the private sector’s capacity to deliver vocational education and training.
Advocating vocational education and training programmes to all potential trainees, but especially to students.
Policy Objective 3: Improve and expand training in zorig chusum
Training in zorig chusum (traditional arts and crafts) will be improved and expanded in order to promote our culture and heritage, strengthen national identity, and create employment. This will be achieved through the following strategies:
- Restructuring and expanding the programmes of the two existing institutes for zorig chusum to improve the quality of training and to increase annual intake from 50 to 100 students.
- Building two new institutes for zorig chusum with a combined annual intake capacity of 100 students.
- Supporting the development of zorig chusum skills in villages through the Village Skills Development Programme.
- Developing zorig chusum training standards and accrediting all zorig chusum courses, including those delivered by the private sector.
Promoting zorig chusum products through advocacy and by strengthening the zorig chusum quality assurance programme.
Policy Objective 4: Maximize use of public expenditure.
The per-unit training costs will be improved in order to enhance efficiency and sustainability in the VET system. This will be achieved through the following strategies:
- Improving the internal processes especially management, pedagogy, marketing and use of IT in training institutes.
- Restructuring the courses and expanding the enrolment capacity of all training institutes.
- Reviewing and restructuring the government’s subsidies for training, particularly payment of trainee stipends.
- Optimizing the use of institute facilities by promoting research and development.
Encouraging training-cum-production, and using the proceeds to contribute to financing part of the training.
Given the enormity of the roles and responsibilities bestowed upon us, it has become imperative to ensure that we develop in a focussed and systematic manner. In order to achieve this, most of our activities are grouped into programmes.
Policy and Planning Programme
- Proper planning and effective management of information is crucial to the realisation of the DHR’s goals and objectives. Activities under this programme include:
- formulating VET (vocational education and training) policies
- developing a national VET strategic plan
- preparing the five-year plans
- preparing annual plans
- monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the plans
- planning and monitoring the development of the DHR training institutes collecting, analysing and disseminating all VET related information
Industrial Liaison and Advocacy Programme
This programme is responsible for maintaining effective links with all VET stakeholders including students, villagers, the unemployed, workers, government agencies, and industries, and particularly those in the private sector. By sharing information and maintaining good communication with all these stake holders we intend to achieve consolidation of each others’ efforts as well as ensure that DHR training programmes are as relevant as possible to them.
A Project Implementation Unit has been established within the secretariat to ensure that the Basic Skills Development Project is implemented effectively and efficiently. All project related activities such as construction of new vocational training institutes, upgradading existing institutes fall under this programme.
Village Skills Development Programme
The Village Skills Development Programme aims at enhancing the quality of life and income in the villages by providing skills training to villagers. This programme has two components.
- Generic skills training.
Mobile training units provide skills training in generic trades that are required to maintain and improve individual and community property. Examples include training in plumbing, masonry, carpentry and house-wiring.
- Village specific skills training
Villages are identified to produce quality goods, particularly zorig chusum products, and youth, including school leavers, are trained in the manufacture of these goods. The objective is to create jobs and establish the reputation of participating villages in the production of quality goods.
Special Skills Development Programme
- Provide training opportunities to disadvantaged youth (juvenile delinquents, prisoners and the physically handicapped)
- Monks & Police were also trained in house wiring, computer operation, computer Hardware Repair and
Apprenticeship Training Programme
The Apprenticeship Training Programme depends on enterprises to provide practical, on-the-job training to school-leavers. In addition to the training that trainees receive in their enterprises, the DHR holds relevant theory classes’ periodically, in areas such as basic business skills, work ethics etc.
Monitoring, Evaluation and Support Programme
Through this programme, the DHR monitors, evaluates and provides support to the training institutes. Activities under this programme will increase substantially once BVQF becomes fully operational.
2) The major program covered in two Dzongkhag, eastern and western part of the country. It has benefited to 20 gewongs. Now we are targeting to cover 20 Dzongkhang.
3) The major problem right now we are facing on financial and management parts.
4) So far 5 lady and 8 male are employed, the government is paying them NU 4500/- per month.
5) Financial status very poor.
6) Non- residential
7) My responsibility is to implement the vocational skill training programme for the disabilities people in the country and also to assist the training need assessment.
3) Objectives and Goals of Vocational Services:
- 1. To create awareness and promote vocational skills among NFE learners and disabilities peoples.
- To provide self-confidence and ability through appropriate vocational training in order to encourage income-generating activities in the community.
- To facilitate Non-formal education (NFE) Instructors and communities to initiate income generation activities or self-employment
- To create awareness of the importance of income-generation concept and recognize as a priority program of the Royal Government
2) The major problem, we face are the financial status and manpower to train the disabilities peoples.
3) The government is trying to seek help from other donor agency to implement the vocational skills to the disabilities peoples.
4) Employment Status:
- a) Some are working in City cooperation as a call receiver and some in the Handicraft center with and average salary of Nu: 4500/- per month.
- c) There is no salary difference for the disabilities people with the other civil servant.
Brief on Vocational rehabilitation in Bhutan:
In general, a working age individual must meet the following criteria to be determined eligible:
- Has a physical or mental impairment which constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment
- Can benefit from Vocational Rehabilitation services in terms of an employment outcome
- Requires Vocational Rehabilitation services to prepare for, secure, retain or regain employment.
The types of services provided are based on the needs of the individual and are designed to help the individual to become employable. Vocational Rehabilitation staff will assess needs in order to provide appropriate services. Certain services depend upon the individual’s meeting economic need guidelines, while other services may be provided without regard to economic need.
b) Yes they do receive the vocational training like in: *Traditional Arts & Painting, Tailoring, Basket weaving, Weaving, Carpentry.
5) Needs base Assessment is done through the dzongkha level and then to the Department level to implement to the school.
2) Expected outcome:
- * Analyze the employment status of persons with disabilities.
- * Improve the knowledge and skill of problem solving, management and proposal writing
- * Formulate interim report which intends to promote employment of persons.